The goal of cattle breeding is to raise healthy animals that can achieve maximum genetic productivity potential at a lower cost. Animal health depends not only on diseases caused by pathogens or metabolic/physical abnormalities, but also on stress factors.
Stress (tension) is a non-specific reaction of the body developed in the process of evolution, aimed at the formation of increased resistance and adaptation in response to changing conditions and adverse effects of the external environment.
External stress is defined as “the result of exposure to environmental factors that are not normal for the animal.”
The World Organization for Animal Health estimates that morbidity and mortality from diseases results in the loss of at least 20% of livestock production worldwide.
“The Five Freedoms,” according to the World Organization for Animal Health
As developed in 1965 and widely practised, the Five Freedoms described society’s expectations of the terms under which an animal should be under the control of a human being.
- Liberty from starvation, undernutrition, and thirst.
- Liberty from fright and distress.
- Liberty from physical stress or discomfort.
- Liberty from the pain, injuries, and sickness.
- Liberty from normality of behaviour patterns.
The World Organization for Animal Health has also developed international standards for the keeping of farmed fish (except ornamental species).
Animal welfare is when an animal can behave naturally in its breeding environment and express the ethology of its species’ behaviour to the maximum extent possible